David Obati, Zachary B Awino, Martin Ogutu


This study examines the influence of macro-environmental forces on the relationship between strategic planning and performance of non-governmental organizations in Nigeria. Nigeria is featured amongst the 10 countries with the highest number of INGOs (Murdie & Kakietek, 2012). The primary motivation for this study therefore is predicated by the face validity and the notable absence of similar research in Nigeria, regarding the relationships between strategic planning, micro-environmental forces and performance of the numerous NGOs in an otherwise complex and dynamic environment. This study is premised upon the resource based view (RBV) theory, the dynamic capabilities theory and the design school. The specific research objectives were to determine the relationship between strategic planning and performance of the NGOs in Nigeria and the influence of the macro-environment on this relationship. The research philosophy in this study was based upon the fundamental positivism approach. A proportionate stratified random sampling technique based on the Zikmund formula was used and yielded a final sample size of 70 (to cater for the anticipated non-response level) from a population frame of 667 NGOs (Dillman, 2000). A web-based survey questionnaire approach (Qualtrics) was administered and duly completed by the respondents with a 68.57% response rate. Descriptive statistics, correlation and parametric statistical (simple linear and multiple regression) techniques were used to systematically analyze the data. The influence of strategic planning on organization performance was statistically significant (R2=0.264, F=16.504, β= 0.504, t= 4.126, p<0.05). The macro-environmental forces in this study exist as a moderating factor. The findings of this study have a number of implications for theory, practice and policy. This study addresses a previously existing gap by examining the NGO sector in Nigeria and contributes immensely to the NGO realm regarding strategic planning and performance. Research has in the area of strategic planning, largely concentrated in developed countries, and this is an epic examination with no previous study traced, that makes a distinct focus on the NGOs in Nigeria. Despite the study limitations encountered, the quality of the study was not compromised. This study considered only NGOs and it is recommended that future researchers should consider carrying out similar studies using different performance measures under different economic sectors to assess any response variations or engage an expanded sample size or study a specific core-sector of the NGOs in Nigeria.

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