People living with HIV on atazanavir-based second line regimens are not highly adherent to therapy; a report from a tertiary referral hospital in Kenya

George Mugendi, Nasser Nyamweya, Faith Okalebo, Jashvant Unadkat


Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a necessity for the attainment of favorable treatment outcomes.  Several factors are known to influence adherence levels among different cohorts of patients. These factors are likely to be different for patients on second line therapies and knowing them might improve the quality of care provided and generally raise adherence levels.

Objective: To determine adherence levels and their determinants in people living with HIV on second line therapy.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in a HIV clinic within Kenyatta National Hospital in October, 2017. Data were collected through interviews and adherence was assessed by oral interview of past medication use and then analyzed in R.

Results: One hundred and ten patients were enrolled; 46 (41.8%) of whom were males. The mean age was 39.8 years (± 11.8). Most participants, 96 (87.3%), were moderately adherent while 14 (12.7%) had low adherence. None were highly adherent. Age (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI; 1.04, 1.19) and depression (aOR =0.17, 95% CI 0.04, 0.64) were independently associated with adherence.

Conclusion: None of the patients on second line regimens were highly adherent to therapy. Younger patients and those with depression require additional adherence counselling.

Key words: People Living With HIV, Antiretroviral Therapy, Adherence


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