Acute toxicity and antihyperglycaemic effect of ethanol stem-bark extract of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) on alloxan induced diabetic rats

Basheer AZ Chedi, Jamil G Abubakar, Omar A Adoum


Background: Diabetes is a common and very prevalent disease affecting the citizens of both developed and developing countries. Many oral hypoglycaemic agents available for the treatment have significant side effects and sometimes are found to be ineffective in chronic diabetic patients.

Objective: To study the acute toxicity and effect of the ethanol stem-bark extract of Annona senegalensis on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Material and Methods: Hypoglycaemic effect of the extract was studied in normal rats using oral glucose tolerance test and in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Effects of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, i.p of ethanol stem-bark extract of Annona senegalensis, and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, i.p) were studied on blood glucose.

Results: The median lethal dose of the extract was found to be 1131.4 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route. In the normal rats (OGTT), from basal to 0 min, the extract did not show significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose level. However, the extract at 300 mg/kg and glibenclamide (5 mg/kg) significantly (p≤ 0.05) prevented glucose induced hyperglycemia at 30 to 90 min as compared to normal control. In the alloxan-induced diabetic rats, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of the extract produced significant (p≤0.05) reduction in blood glucose levels. Maximum effect was observed with the 300 mg/kg dose of stem-bark of Annona senegalensis.

Conclusion: The results showed that the ethanol extract of the stem bark of the plant possessed antihyperglycaemic activity.

Key Words: Hypoglacaemic effect, Annona senegalensis, diabetes mellitus, glibenclamide.


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